DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/RADAP.2018.72.62-68

### Impedance measurement front-end based on signal four-phase detection

#### Abstract

The implementation of impedance spectroscopy assumes a transition from frequency plots to plots on the complex plane, called as Nyquist plots. The data obtained in this paper are based on the SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) model studding methodology, which compares small signal Alternative Current Analysis with large signal Transient Analysis. During the Alternative Current Analysis, Nyquist impedance plot are obtained in the idealized case, and during the Transient Analysis the active ReZ value and reactive ImZ impedance components are calculated for the actual parameters of the measuring transducers and the form of the activating signals.

We have proposed a new solution of the impedance measuring transducer based on the four-phase signal commutation and integration method. This method consists in the formation of four informative signals, namely, the voltages $V_{Q1}$, $V_{Q2}$, $V_{Q3}$ та $V_{Q4}$, each of which corresponds to the integration results in the corresponding four phases of the activation signal. In these phases, or time t, the sign functions $A_{Q1}(t)$, $A_{Q2}(t)$, $A_{Q3}(t)$, $A_{Q4}(t)$ of synchronous detections are used: $A_{Q1}(t)=1$ at $t=[0...\pi/2]$; $A_{Q2}(t)=1$ at $t=[\pi/2...\pi]$; $A_{Q3}(t)=1$ at $t=[\pi...3\pi/2]$; $A_{Q4}(t)=1$ at $t=[3\pi/2...2\pi]$. In other time these sign functions are equal 0. Output signals of the impedance measuring transducer, namely, voltages of active $V_{RE}$ and the reactive $V_{IM}$ components are formed by adding and subtracting the numerical values of the above four voltages: $V_{RE}=V_{Q1}+V_{Q2}-V_{Q3}-V_{Q4}$; $V_{IM}=V_{Q1}-V_{Q2}-V_{Q3}+V_{Q4}$. The main units of the impedance measuring analog front-end are a synchronous quadrature detector and an integrator or filter.

In comparison to traditional two-phase detection, four-phase detection we have proposed allows avoiding intermediate signal transducing, which provides a significant simplification of impedance measuring transducing. This simplification is achieved by directly integrating the instantaneous value of the $I_{Z}(t)$ current. Important dependences of the measuring transducer output voltages with four-phase integration on the operational amplifiers bandwidth are obtained.

Results presented in the article are important for developing a new generation of microelectronic IoT sensor devices based on impedance spectroscopy methods. Main areas of application of such sensor devices are materials science, biochemistry, instrumentation, avionics, ecology, etc.

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